This is the tale of William McIntosh known as Tustunnuggee
Hutker - the White Warrior.
To begin at the beginning we find Captain John McIntosh who
travelled from Badenoch in Scotland in 1736 and arrived at a town
in Georgia called New Inverness, now known as Darien.
John was the son of Benjamin McIntosh, who was the son of
William McIntosh, famous for his part in the 1715 Jacobite uprising
in Scotland. Capt. John McIntosh married Catharine MacGillivray,
from this union came a son William McIntosh who became a Tory
captain in the British service during the War of Revolution in the
Captain William McIntosh lived among the Creek native peoples.
While living with the Creeks Captain McIntosh married two Creek
women. One was called Senoya or Senoia who was the mother of
William McIntosh Jr. who was to become a chief of the lower Creek
Born about 1775 at Coweta on the Georgia frontier on the west
bank of the Chattahoochee River and as was the custom of many
native people, young William was raised by his mother and her
eldest brother. His father Capt. McIntosh was left out completely
and returned to the Georgia coast where he remarried.
The young William was schooled in the ways of the Creek peoples
by his mother and uncles and at some point he taught himself to
read , write and speak fluent English, spending time in Savannah,
Georgia where he felt at ease with both Creek and white
William McIntosh was known as Tustunnuggee Hutker (White
Warrior). During the war of 1812 the Creek Nation split, the upper
Creeks supported the British, the lower Creeks supported the United
States from 1813 to 1814. This split led to the Creek Indian
During this conflict William McIntosh led the lower Creeks
against their upper Creek brothers and was with Andrew Jackson at
the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. For his service in the victory at
this battle he was commissioned a brigadier general in the U.S.
Army. He was deeply respected by the lower Creek peoples. In the
surviving upper creek towns his esteem was less than sterling.
Chief McIntosh also fought on the side of the U.S. in the first
Seminole war. It has been said that during the war he played a
major role in the capture of Fort Gadsden on the lower
In the years following his battles Chief McIntosh made many land
cessions by signing treaties in 1814-1818 and 1821. All of these
giving away Creek land - for signing the Treaty in 1821 McIntosh
got 1,000 acres of land at Indian Springs, Georgia. He also
received another 640 acres on the Ocmulgee River. McIntosh signed
all these treaties despite the Creek law stating that anyone who
sold or gave away Creek land would be killed.
On February 12, 1825 six Creek chiefs plus Chief McIntosh signed
the Treaty of Indian Springs. This gave away all Creek lands in
Georgia and a large tract in Alabama. This would also move the
Creek peoples west. This was done for a payment of $400,000.00 of
which the McIntosh party would receive $200,000.00 plus Chief
McIntosh would be paid $25,000.00 for his land at Indian
After this, the Creek met and sanctioned McIntosh' execution. An
old enemy named Menawa who had survived the defeat at Horseshoe
Bend led 170 warriors on May 31, 1825 to McIntosh' home which they
burned to the ground. They killed Chief McIntosh and two other
people who had signed the treaty. Thus ended the story of the
Scottish-Creek Indian, William McIntosh Jr.